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Know-how Legal Protection Basics In EU & UK

Sweden was the only country to pass a law entirely dedicated to the protection of trade secrets. Some EU Member states have specific legal provisions governing such facilities, while in others, the general law rules are applied. In a number of jurisdictions in the relationship with the secrets of the production subject to the provisions of the laws on unfair competition and the Criminal Code.

Quite often, labor legislation imposes specific duties on employees to maintain the confidentiality of information of the employer during the period of employment. At the same time the problem of obtaining such information by workers illegally remains actual. In addition to the legal provisions of the duty of confidentiality may result from a contract or rules on torts.

Unfair competition

In Germany, Austria and Poland the main legal provisions concerning trade secrets are contained in the legislation on unfair competition. Such legislation exists and is partially applied to the know-how and in other countries The law of torts is actively used in respect of trade secrets in Belgium, Greece, the Netherlands, Portugal.

Criminal legal protection of know-how exists in most countries (except Ireland and the UK, although in 1997, it was decided to introduce such protection, but no practical steps have been taken since then). In UK much depends on the direct services providers, like UMIP (services provider) for example, a branch of Manchester University (innovator) focused on intellectual property consulting and management.

Germany, Greece and Cyprus are considering criminal sanctions as one of the most reliable ways to prevent illegal actions in respect of protected information. The punishment for “stealing” trade secrets is usually given in the form of fines or imprisonment. Continue reading “Know-how Legal Protection Basics In EU & UK” »

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The essential role of ball valves in engineering systems

Today it is difficult to imagine even a basic engineering system, whether it be water, heat, gas, air conditioning or oi transportation infrastructure without flow control devices of various media, i.e. without the pipeline valves. The principle of operation of any pipeline valves is based on the change in the flow cross sections. One of the most common type that is used to shut off the flow of the medium is the ball valve. The devices invented almost 100 years ago rely on basic physics laws and no significantly more effective alternative until nowadays.

Ball valves and durable industrial ball valves by Orseal, a seasoned engineering equipment manufacturer, are a decent example of a finest quality and unsurpassed cost-efficiency: by its parameters, they in no way inferior, and in many ways superior to costly analogs by large US and Swiss enterprises. Orseal focuses on reliability and durability and promotes easy-to-use systems, valves for gas, water, heating and cooling, as well as for other industrial processes.

When choosing body ball valves for common industries considering carbon steels and special heat-resistant colored enamel models that can withstand operating temperatures up to 200°C, and having a high resistance to the appearance of scratches. However, it is worth noting that there are models of valves providing heat and cold-resistant performance that can withstand ambient temperatures up to -60 ° C, which is especially important for the northern regions, oil and gas industries. Since the locking sphere is the most crucial element in the construction, it is typically made of stainless steel. Additionally, the ball is covered with grease, thus reducing friction and wear of ring seals, plus it increases the life of the ball itself. The surface of the ball is carefully polished with protecting layer (but no more than 0.1 micron thickness). Such a high accuracy at times allows to reduce the wear of ring seal, and hence to considerably increase the service life of the tap (when compared to conventional valves). The reliability and durability of the saddle seal is provided by the crane, which is made of a fluoroplastic with the addition of 20% carbon. In connection with this increase, the design life with proper maintenance grows up to 25 years. The production range of steel ball valves typically includes 16, 25, 40 bar models in a range of diameters from 15 to 500 mm. There are the following options for configuration management you may want to make use of: mechanical gearbox, manual (stick), electric actuator, pneumatic actuator.

To press for an increased durability pay attention to A-class integrity throughout life, through the use of disc springs, which create additional seat springing. Every ball valve is tested for strength and density of design with water or air – saddle seals for leaks, after which it is assigned to a unique number. Ball valves Biwa, successfully passed the test, go to the packing area where passport-equipped with detailed instructions and labeling.

calculator and pen grip on the calculations of profit, loss, etc.

Mindless Code Devouring Your Marketing Budget

Have you ever thought about the fact that your internet advertising is served not only to humans but soulless scripts – bots, as well? The question may seem odd, but according to the range of studies it is argued that almost a quarter of the traffic is generated by robots. Does it mean you just waste a considerable sum of money? Help yourself with a comprehensive article, prepared in collaboration with HTP Digital, a top-star b2b digital marketing agency based in Manchester.

The state of affairs

Incapsula Company, which deals with information security sites, presented an analysis of more than 15 billion visits to over 20,000 sites in 2014. According to their data, 29% of traffic in 2014 accounts for robots. And while some share goes to search engine robots, the lion’s share goes to bots that masquerade as web crawlers. 22% of these entities represent special hacking tools that collect statistics from sites and steal confidential information, a further 3% are the programs that attempt to clean up the data on the targeted sites. For sites with a small percentage of attendance bots traffic is even greater – 31%. Incapsula marks a positive trend: compared with 2013, the share of bots in the traffic of web resources has decreased by 10%, but by the same percentage increase in the number of simulators bot traffic.

Bots that love advertising

According to the study by the American Association of Advertisers, which took place in August and September, 2014, 23% of the largest US video advertising brands get their views from boots. This study was more extensive than the work Incapsula: more than 30 million of websites have been analysed during 60 days. As a result, some advertising video campaigns revealed they attract from 2% to 100% of bot traffic.

In Eastern Europe and Asia, bots are even more active. For several years various sources, in particular BotScaner, say that robots account for no less than 35% of the traffic Russia. In a large percentage of cases, it is not just the search engine crawlers or hacking scripts, but very real cheats that make the owners of advertising platforms – webmasters, agencies that carry Internet traffic, or the promotion of sites and content. Draining advertising traffic from competitors is another trouble.

Unfortunately, the exact figures concerning the video advertising do not exist. But there are some techniques that help find out the real effectiveness of video advertising for any company. For example, a tool developed by mfive for measuring viral videos – Viral Checker. It can help you understand how effective your video views.

Any advertiser in this case a question arises: why pay-per-views, which make the bots? The answer seems obvious. Do not trust the figures: a few million page views may cause euphoria and a feeling of success. This is where unscrupulous contractors aim at. So do not give in to emotions, do not believe your eyes and reports, initiate a deep traffic sources and efficiency analysis and take advantage of different metrics.

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Gantry Cranes Mechanism Ins & Outs

This post is sponsored by Granada Material Handling, the gantry hoist and overhead crane manufacturing innovator servicing domestic UK and EU market. The article focuses on mechanism of gantry cranes and their functioning.

Gantry cranes structure

The bridge crane is a major supporting structure designed to move the trolley that works with overhead loads or lifting devices. Since the mass of the bridge may constitute up to 75% of the total weight of the metal gantry crane and wind loads on the bridge may increase the load up to 85%, the design of the gantry crane for a given object is absolutely crucial.

Bridge structures are different and are selected taking into account specific conditions of the bridge, having the lowest metal content and the easiest to manufacture and assemble. By the number of supporting beams are classified into single and double-girder bridges. Depending on the required width of the served areas and access roads for vehicles with single beam and girder bridges are either console (with one or two consoles) or non-console.

On a number of cranes used in ports, one of the consoles can run the lift to the passage of ships. The height of the bridge girders is determined by the crane consoles. With the length of the console equal to 20-30% of the span, the height of beams equals 8%. When using non-console cranes the height of beams increases by 4-5%. Continue reading “Gantry Cranes Mechanism Ins & Outs” »

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Ultrasound Industrial Application Overview

Due to the increasing complexity of modern engineering products, the sophistication of requirements for accuracy and reliability, with the improvement of production technology significantly increased demands on the quality of cleaning. Perfection of applied technological processes of cleaning and surface preparation depends essentially on quality cleaning products in various industries. Modern methods of surface cleaning products provide a complete mechanical, chemical and physico-chemical interaction between the active cleaning environment pollution and the surface being cleaned.

High-quality cleaning of parts is a quite complicated and time consuming process. It is carried out with the help of special detergents that have the ability to soften and dissolve dirt to remove it from the surface. Aqueous solutions are known to be the widely used medium for removing contaminants. They are effective, non-toxic, non-flammable and allowing using ultrasonic activation, greatly accelerating the cleaning process and improving its efficiency. Under the influence of ultrasonic the washing liquid acquires the ability to penetrate into the deep pores, tight holes, channels and nodes of complex configuration, portions of which under normal circumstances, the impact of cleaning media will hardly be achieved. Despite the wide variety of processes for the preparation of the surface details before subsequent operations, cleaning process in general is reduced to two aspects:

  1. Cleaning in an aqueous solution of technical detergent (TD);
  2. Washing residues from TD in running water.

One of the most promising applications of ultrasound in various industries, which meets modern requirements of technological processes, is the cleaning of parts, components and assemblies of technological and operational pollution. The specialised equipment is supplied by the brands producing ultrasonic cleaning systems. Hilsonic Company, a prominent ultrasonic cleaner equipment manufacturer offers a range of 20+ models with deep customisation capabilities, and this is just a single brand.

The process of contamination occurs on the surfaces mostly during the production process. Preclassification pollution assessment of the cleaning surface allows to choose the right detergent and cleaning technology. Taking into account the features of ultrasonic cleaning all the dirt is classified into three main features:

  1. the ability to withstand loads microshock;
  2. the nature and strength of the connection with the surface to be cleaned;
  3. the nature of the chemical interaction with the cleaning fluid.

The most common for most industries are oil pollution and oil-based polishing paste, inorganic pollution in the form of mechanical particles and dust, corrosion products, oxides, oxide film. When machining chips, dust, burrs and etc. are produced. When welding and scale, flux residues, resins, salts are formed.

It is relatively easy to remove inorganic contaminants in the form of particles and dust mechanically weakly coupled with the surface details. But when it comes to polishing, grinding and lapping pastes consisting of abrasive powders and binders – the removal will hardly be a walk in the park. They are based on stubborn substance – oleic acid, stearin, paraffin, etc. and abrasives do not dissolve neither in water nor in organic solvents. With ultrasonic cleaning such contamination is removed due to emulsification and saponification of fatty pollution and dispersion of solid particles.

 

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The Industrial Application Of Lime

The largest consumers of lime products are iron, steel and construction industry, pulp and paper industry, chemical industry, sugar industry and agriculture. Significant amounts of lime are used for environmental protection (neutralization of waste water and waste gas).

In industrialized countries, the consumption of lime now stands at about 85 kg per capita per year. The global production of lime, including small producers in developing countries, as well as producers of lime for their own needs (steel mills, paper mills and sugar), is estimated at 300 million tons per year. The market receives about 120 ml tons per year.

Building lime is referred to the product obtained by firing up a full selection of carbon dioxide and calcium-magnesium rocks containing no more than 8% of clay and sand impurities. As raw materials carbonate rocks – limestone, chalk, coquina, dolomitic limestone are used.

Types of lime

According to the number contained in the lime silicates and calcium, giving it hydraulic properties, the following types are distinguished:

  • Air lime, providing hardening of mortars and preservation of strength at normal humidity;
  • Hydraulic lime, providing solidification and strength retention solutions used both in air and in water. A more universal solution is massively utilised by architectural innovators, such as Telling, focusing on hydraulic lime and lime mortar technologies.

In the air lime the amount of silicate and calcium aluminate-ferrites usually vary in the range of 4-12%, in some cases up to 20%. With the content of 25-40% of lime clinker minerals it shows weak hydraulic properties, such lime is called poor hydraulic lime. Strong hydraulic lime contains from 40 to 90% of silicates and alumino-ferrates. Continue reading “The Industrial Application Of Lime” »